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Essays, Term Papers, Book Reports, Research Papers on Music. Free Papers and Essays on Miles Davis. We provide free model essays on Music, Miles .

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Useful sample research paper on Local Food topics. Free example research proposal about Local Food Movement. Read tips how to write good academic research papers .

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Free miles davis papers, essays, and research papers. Term Papers: Food Miles and Your Carbon Footprint - Food Miles is how far the food travels from its.

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It is also linked to the localization efforts of people who believe that rising transport costs and reaction to globalization insomnia research paper pdf trigger a shortening of economic links and greater reliance on local and regional economies. Ina Swedish researcher calculated that the ingredients of a typical Swedish breakfast-apple, bread, butter, cheese, coffee, cream, orange juice, sugar-traveled a distance equal to the circumference of the Earth before reaching the Scandinavian table.

Ina researcher in Iowa found that the research papers on food miles, sugar, and strawberries that go into a carton of strawberry yogurt collectively journeyed 2, miles milee, kilometers just to get to the processing plant. As the local-food movement has come of age, this concept of "food miles" or "-kilometers" -roughly, the distance food travels from farm to plate-has come to dominate the discussion, particularly in the United States, the United Kingdom, and parts of Research papers on food miles Europe.

In light of such contrasts, the admonition to "eat local" just seems like common sense. And pspers, at the most basic level, fewer transport miles do mean fewer emissions. Similarly, a Canadian study estimated that replacing imported research papers on food miles with equivalent items locally grown in the Waterloo, Ontario, region would save transport-related emissions equivalent to nearly 50, metric tons of CO papeds the equivalent of taking 16, cars off the road.

Alisa Smith and J. MacKinnon, authors of The Mile Diet, write that they chose this boundary for their experiment in eating locally because mba assignment help australia mile radius is large enough to reach beyond a big research papers on food miles and small enough to feel truly local.

Free miles davis Essays and Papers

She figured that if Nabhan could accomplish that in the desert, she could do even better in the year-round agricultural cornucopia that is Northern California, so she decided to limit herself to food from within miles. A Leopold Institute survey papegs consumers throughout the United States found that two-thirds considered local food to mean food grown within miles.

Still, a variety of other definitions also persist. Sometimes local means food grown within a county, within a state or province, or even, in the case of some small European nations, within the country. In the United Kingdom, reports Tara Research papers on food miles of the Food Climate Research Network, "on the whole, organizations mules local are now less likely to put numbers on things.

All of those are perfectly valid ways of ppapers about local. That impact depends on how the food was transported, not just how far. For example, trains are 10 times more efficient at moving freight, ton for ton, than trucks are.

So you could eat potatoes trucked in from miles reseearch, or potatoes shipped by rail from 1, miles away, and the greenhouse gas mlles associated with their transport from farm to table would be roughly the same.

The essay and paper writing service impact mjles food also depends on how it is market research proposal introduction. Swedish researcher Annika Free cake decorating business plan led a study that found it was better, from a greenhouse-gas perspective, for Swedes to buy Spanish tomatoes than Swedish tomatoes, because the Spanish tomatoes were grown in open fields while the local ones were grown in fossil-fuel-heated greenhouses.

That seems obvious, but there are subtler issues at play as well. For example, Spain has plenty of the warmth and sunshine expository writing assignments for 9th grade research papers on food miles crave, but its reseagch horticultural region is relatively arid and is likely to become more drought-prone in the future as a result of global climate change.

What if water shortages require Spanish growers to install energy-intensive irrigation systems? And what if greenhouses in northern Europe were heated with renewable energy? And life-cycle harry potter essay paper LCAa research research papers on food miles that provides precisely this "cradle-to-grave" perspective, reveals that food miles represent a relatively small slice of the greenhouse-gas pie.

In a paper published last year, Christopher Weber and H. Scott Matthews, of Carnegie Mellon University, wove together data from a variety of U. According to their calculations, final delivery from producer or processor to the point of retail sale accounts for only 4 percent of the U.

Final delivery accounts for only about a quarter of the total miles, and 40 percent of the transport-related emissions, in the food supply chain as a whole. A recent life-cycle analysis of desearch U. Garnett says the same general patterns likely also hold for Europe as a whole.

Resezrch a large portion how to write a five paragraph argumentative essay emissions associated with meat and dairy production take the form of methane and nitrous oxide, greenhouse gases that are milrs 23 and times as potent as carbon dioxide.

Methane is produced by ruminant animals cows, goats, sheep, and the like as a byproduct of digestion, and is also released by reseach breakdown of all foov of animal manure. Nitrous oxide also comes from the breakdown of manure as well as the production and breakdown of fertilizers. In fact, she writes, "the major contribution made by agriculture itself reflects the GHG [greenhouse gas] intensity of livestock rearing.

Milfs their study the second-largest contributor to emissions was the dairy industry. Nor are these two studies unique in their findings. A group of Swedish researchers has calculated paper meat and dairy contribute 58 percent of the total food emissions from a typical Swedish diet. At a global fold, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that livestock account for oj percent of all greenhouse gas emissions-more even than all forms of fossil fuel-based transport combined.

Weber and Matthews calculated that reducing food miles to zero-an all-but-impossible goal in practice-would research papers on food miles the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the food system by only about research papers on rezearch miles percent, equivalent to driving 1, miles less over the course of a year. By comparison, replacing red meat and dairy with chicken, fish, or eggs for one day per week would save the equivalent of driving miles per year.

Replacing red meat and dairy with vegetables one day a week would be like driving 1, research papers on food miles less. However, Weber mile, "these calculations were done assuming that local foods are no different research papers on food miles mules foods.

For example, local-food advocates also emphasize eating seasonal often meaning field-grown and less-processed foods. Those qualities, along with shorter distances from farm to table, will also contribute to lower ffood compared to the "average" diet. Organic food also has other environmental benefits: Because local food is so frequently talked about in terms of food miles, its environmental benefits have largely been couched in terms of greenhouse gas emissions.

Finally, farmers who market locally are often relatively small in scale, and can more feasibly adopt environmentally beneficial practices such as growing a diversity of crops, planting cover crops, leaving weedy field borders or planting hedgerows that provide a refuge for foor biodiversity, and integrating crop and livestock production.

In short, Weber says, "the production practices matter a research papers on food miles research papers on food miles than where the food was actually grown. Of course, the relationship between local food marketing and sustainable agricultural practices is far from perfect.

A small farmer can still spray pesticides and plow from road to road. Not all farmers-market vendors are organic. So, is local food greener? But look at the question from the opposite direction: By the same token, a farmer who sells in the local food economy might be more likely to adopt or continue sustainable practices in order to meet this customer demand. Or, as Hinrichs has written, "it is the ffood relation, not the spatial location, per se, that research papers on food miles for this outcome.

For local food advocates like Sage Van Wing, that interaction between producer and consumer, between farmer and eater, is precisely the point. Interacting directly with the farmer who grows her research papers on food miles creates a "standard of trust," she says. Christopher Weber, who followed a vegan diet for 10 years and calls himself "somewhat of a self-proclaimed foodie," agrees: Van My goals in life short essay says that her approach to local food has papere over time-she started out trying to eat within a mile radius, but now she simply solved assignment of aiou 416 to get each food item from the closest art incubator business plan feasible.

Her statement echoes journalist and sustainable-agriculture guru Michael Pollan, who in his recent book In Defense of Research papers on food miles offers a free outsourcing essay guide to eating ethically and well: Yet there are limits to this common-sense approach. In many areas, the papets is such that eating local, seasonal, field-grown produce would be a pretty bleak proposition for much of the year.

And population density itself works against relocalization of the food system. Most of the land within miles of large cities such as New York is itself very built up; where will the farmland to feed us all locally come from? By the same token, that very situation makes preservation of papwrs farmland remains all the more important, a goal that buying from local farmers can help advance.

Research Paper on Music. Essays, Term Papers on Miles Davis

In this sense, life-cycle analyses of the current food system offer a paradoxically hopeful perspective, because they suggest that, if mies goal is to improve the environmental sustainability of the food system as a whole, then there are a variety of public policy levers that we can pull.

To be sure, promoting more localized food production and distribution networks would reduce transport emissions. But what research papers on food miles a greater investment in rail infrastructure helped to reverse the trend toward transporting research papers on food miles food by mlles semi-truck?

What if fuel imles standards were increased for the truck fleet that moves our food? Or, to name one encompassing possibility, what if a carbon-pricing system incorporated some of the environmental costs of agriculture that are currently externalized? Local food is delicious, but the problem-and perhaps the solution-is global.

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