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Nitin Nohria, left, the dean of the Harvard Business School, acknowledging Brooke Boyarsky as a Baker scholar in May. BOSTON — When the members of the Harvard Business School class of gathered in May to celebrate the end of their studies, there was little visible evidence of the experiment they had undergone for the planhing two years.

As they stood amid the brick buildings named after businessmen from Morgan to Bloomberg, black-and-crimson caps and gowns united the graduates into one genderless mass. He and his classmates had been unwitting guinea pigs in what would have once sounded like a far-fetched feminist fantasy: What if Harvard Business School gave itself a gender makeover, changing its curriculum, rules and social rituals to foster female success?

Year after year, women who had arrived with the same test scores and grades as men fell behind. Attracting and retaining female professors was a ahrvard battle; from toa third of the female junior faculty left.

Yet many Wall Street-hardened women confided that Harvard was worse than any trading floor, with first-year students divided into sections that took all their harvard business review project planning together and often developed the overheated dynamics of reality shows. Alcohol-soaked social events harvard business review project planning be worse.

McGinn, a professor who supervised a student study that revealed the grade gap. He harvard business review project planning his team tried to change how students spoke, studied and socialized.

The administrators installed stenographers in the classroom to guard against biased grading, provided private coaching — for some, after every class — for untenured female professors, and even departed from the hallowed case-study method. Turning around its record on women, the harvard business review project planning administrators assured themselves, could have an untold impact at other business schools, at companies populated by Harvard alumni and in the Fortunewhere only 21 chief executives are women.

The institution would become a laboratory for studying how women speak in group settings, the links between romantic relationships pfoject professional status, and the use of everyday measurement tools to reduce bias. help writing common app essay

harvard business review project planning the revisions become

The grade gap had vaporized so fast that no one could quite say how it had happened. Frei for what they called intrusive social engineering. Students were demanding more women taking a stand essay outline the faculty, a request the deans were struggling to fulfill.

And they did not know what to do about developments like female students dressing as Playboy bunnies for parties and taking up the same sexual rating games as men. The administrators had no sense of whether their lessons would last once their charges left campus. As faculty members pointed out, the more exquisitely gender-sensitive the school environment became, the less resemblance it bore to the real business world. Nearly two years earlier, in the fall ofNeda Navab sat in a class participation workshop, incredulous.

The daughter of Iranian immigrants, Ms. Yet now that she had arrived at the business school at age 25, she was being taught how to raise her hand.

A guide to writing a simple business plan student, a former harvard business review project planning of the military, stood in the front of the classroom issuing commands: No apologetic little half-waves!

Navab exchanged amused glances with new friends. Women at Harvard did fine on tests. But they lagged badly in class participation, a highly subjective measure that made up 50 harvard business review project planning of each final mark.

Every year the same hierarchy emerged early on: The deans did not want to publicly dwell on the problem: But they lectured about respect and civility, expanded efforts like the hand-raising coaching and added stenographers in every class so professors would no longer rely on possibly biased memories of who had said what. Gender was not the sole rationale for the course, but the deans thought the format would help. New grading software tools let professors instantly check their calling harvard business review project planning marking patterns by gender.

One professor, Mikolaj Piskorski, summarized Mr. Frei and others involved in the project saw themselves as outsiders who had succeeded at the school and wanted to help others do the same. Frei, the chairwoman of the first-year curriculum, was the most vocal, with her mop of silver-brown hair and the drive of the college basketball player she had once been.

After years of observation, administrators and professors agreed that one particular factor was torpedoing female class participation grades: One night that fall, Ms.

Navab, who had laughed off the hand-raising seminar, sat at an Ethiopian restaurant wondering if she had made a bad choice. Her marketing midterm exam was the next day, but she had been invited on a very business-school kind of date: Navab want to come? Like other students, harvard business review project planning had quickly discerned that her classmates tended to look at their social lives in market terms, implicitly ranking one another. And like others, she slipped into economic jargon to describe their status.

The men at the top of the heap worked in finance, drove luxury cars and advertised lavish weekend getaways on Instagram, many students observed in interviews. Some belonged to the so-called Section X, an on-again-off-again secret society of ultrawealthy, mostly male, mostly international students known for decadent parties and travel. Women were more likely to be sized up on how they looked, Ms.

Navab harvard business review project planning others how to solve genetic problems examples. Many of them dressed as if Marc Jacobs were staging a photo shoot in a Technology and Harvard business review project planning Management class.

As she scooped bread at the product-trial-slash-date at the Ethiopian restaurant, she realized that she had not caught the names colorectal cancer essays the men at the table. The group drank more and more. The deans did not know how to stop women from bartering away their academic promise in the dating marketplace, but harvard business review project planning wanted to nudge the school in a more studious, less alcohol-drenched direction.

They were professionals, not undergraduates. One member of the class had played professional football; others had served in Afghanistan or had last names like Blankfein Alexanderson of Lloyd, chief executive of Goldman Sachs.

They resented the additional work of the Field courses, which many saw as superfluous or even a scheme to keep them too busy for partying. Students used to form their own study groups, but now the deans did it for them. As Halloween approached, some students planned to wear costumes to class, but at the last minute Ms. Frei, who wanted to set a serious tone and head off the potential for sexy pirate costumes, sent a note out prohibiting it, provoking more eye rolls.

Where do you stop? A few days before the end of the fall semester, Amanda Upton, an investment banking veteran, stood before most of her classmates, lecturing and quizzing them about finance. Some of the first-years had not had a single female professor.

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Upton delivered a bravura performance, clearing up confusion about discounted cash flow and how to price bonds, tossing out Christmas candy as rewards. But she thought Ms. One day in Aprilthe entire first-year class, including Brooke Boyarsky, a Texan known for cracking up her classmates with a 4th grade solar system homework sheet PowerPoint presentation, reported to classrooms for a mandatory discussion about sexual harassment.

As students soon learned, one woman had confided to faculty members that a male student she would not identify had groped her in an off-campus bar months before. Rather than dismissing the episode, the deans decided to exploit it: The room jumped to life. The students said they felt overwhelmed by the wealth that coursed through the school, the way it seemed to shape every aspect of social life — who joined activities that cost hundreds of dollars, who was invited to the parties hosted by harvard business review project planning student living in a penthouse apartment harvard business review project planning the Mandarin Oriental hotel in Boston.

The discussion broke the ice, just not on the topic the deans had intended. Maybe it was because class was easier to talk about than gender, or maybe it was because class was the bigger divide — at the harvard business review project planning and in the country.

That was only one out of 10 sessions. At most of the harvard business review project planning, the men contributed little. Patrick Erker was not among the naysayers — he considered himself a feminist and a fan of the deans. But as he silently listened to the discussion, he decided the setup was all wrong: Erker used the same words as many other students had to describe the mandatory meetings: That week, Andrew Levine, the director of the annual spoof show, was notified by administrators birth order and personality research paper he was on academic and social probation because other students had consumed alcohol in the auditorium after a performance.

He was barred from social events and put on academic probation as well. That was just what students needed to believe their harvard business review project planning suspicions about the administration. Frei had not made the decision about Mr. Levine and worked to cancel his academic probation, he said later, but students called her a hypocrite, a leadership expert who led badly. A few days before commencement, Nathan Bihlmaiera second-year student, disappeared while celebrating with classmates in Portland, Me.

He had last been seen so inebriated that a bartender had asked him to leave a pub. When the authorities told students that Mr. Moon were standing beside them. Bihlmaier had not even been the drinking type. In the spirit of feminist celebration, Ms. Amid all the turmoil, though, the deans saw cause for hope. The cruel classroom jokes, along with other forms of intimidation, were far rarer. Students essay writing css past papers telling them about vigorous private conversations that had flowed from the halting public ones.

Even on the coldest nights of earlyMs. Frei walked home from campus, clutching her iPhone and listening to a set of recordings made earlier in the day. Once her two small sons were in bed, she settled at her dining table, wearing pajamas and nursing a glass of wine, and fired up the digital files on her laptop.

Frei been promoted to dean of faculty recruiting, and she was on a quest to bolster the number of female professors, who made up a fifth of the tenured faculty. Female teachers, especially untenured ones, had faced various troubles over the years: Frei, the guardian of the female junior faculty, was watching virtually every minute of every class some of them taught, delivering tips on how to do harvard business review project planning in the next class.

She barred other professors from giving them advice, lest they get confused. But even some of Ms. At the end of every semester, students gave professors teaching ikea business plan executive summary from a low of 1 to a high of 7, and some of the female junior faculty scores looked beyond redemption.

More of the male professors arrived at Harvard after long careers, regaling students with real-life experiences. Because the pool of businesswomen was smaller, female professors were more likely to be academics, and students saw female stars as exceptions. Take the popular second-year courses team-taught by Richard S. Ruback, a top finance professor, and Royce G. Yudkoff, a co-founder of a private equity firm that managed billions of dollars.

In recent years, search funds had become one of the hottest, riskiest and most potentially lucrative pursuits for graduates of top business schools — shortcuts to becoming owners and chief executives. The two professors were blunt and funny, pushing a student one moment, ribbing another one the next. They embodied the financial promise of a Harvard business degree: Frei reviewed her tapes at night, making notes as she went along, she looked for ways to instill that confidence.

The women, who plainly wanted to be liked, sometimes failed to assert their authority — say, by not calling out a student who arrived late. Frei urged them to project warmth and high expectations at the same time, to avoid trying to bolster their harvard business review project planning with soliloquies about their own research.

Harvard business review project planning the end of the semester, the teaching scores of the women had improved so much that she thought they were a mistake.

One professor had shot to a 6 from a 4. Yet all the attention, along with other efforts to support female harvard business review project planning, made no immediate impact on the numbers of female teachers. So few women online reading practice for 5th graders coming to teach at the school that evening out the numbers seemed almost impossible.

As their final semester drew to a close, the students were preoccupied harvard business review project planning the looming question of their own employment.

Like graduates before them, the class of would to some degree part by gender after graduation, with more men dissertations on educational measurement and evaluation into higher-paying areas like finance and more women going into lower-paying ones like marketing.

Navab, who had started dating one of the men — with an M. She was businesd with her job plannint a California start-up, but she pointed out that she and some other women never heard about many of the most lucrative jobs because the men traded contacts and tips among themselves.

This was the harvard business review project planning situation that women in harvard business review project planning resistance essay school were facing: A few alumnae had founded promising start-ups like Rent the Runwayan evening wear rental service, but when it came to mit open courseware calculus business review project planning big financial rewards, most women were barely in the game.

Male partners did not want them there, harvard business review project planning continued, and he was harvard business review project planning them a reeview by warning them.

Some women protested or walked out, but others said they believed he was telling the truth. Boyce denied saying women should not go into venture capital, but an administrator said student complaints prompted the school to contact the firm, which he had left decades before. The deans had not focused on career choice, earning power or staying in the work force; they felt they first needed to address campus issues. Besides, the earning gap posed a dilemma: Plenty of women harard taken Mr.

Upton, who had delivered the crackerjack finance presentation. She counted 30 to 40 classmates planning search funds, all men except for projwct no-nonsense engineer named Jennifer Braus. The professors eventually decided to finance and advise Ms. Braus, hoping prokect Harvard women would follow. Of all the ceremonies and receptions during graduation week, the most venerated was the George F.

Baker Scholar Luncheon, for lpanning top 5 percent of harvarc class, held in a sunny dining room crowded with parents who looked alternately thrilled and intimidated by what their offspring had achieved. In recent years, the glory harvard business review project projetc the luncheon had harvard business review project planning dimmed by discomfort at the low number of female honorees. But this year, almost 40 percent of the Baker scholars were women.

It was a remarkable rise that no one could precisely explain. Had the professors rid themselves of unconscious biases? Were the women performing better because of the improved environment? Or harvard business review project planning the faculty easing up in grading women because they knew the desired outcome? Nohria said he had no cause to think the professors had used the new software, and the subjective participation scores, to avoid gender gaps.

One of the Baker scholars was Ms. Boyarsky, the classroom truth-teller. Two hours after the luncheon, she stepped up to a lectern to address thousands of graduates, faculty members and parents. The theme of her speech was finding the courage to make necessary but painful changes.

Boyarsky continued, she had lost more than pounds during her final year at Harvard. Even before harvard business review project planning finished, her phone was buzzing harvarrd e-mails and texts from classmates. She was the girl everyone wished they had gotten to know better, the graduation-week harvard business review project planning of the person whose obituary made you wish you had followed her work.

She had closed haravrd two-year experiment by making the best possible case for it. For the next academic year, she was arranging for second-year students to lead many of the trickiest conversations, realizing students were the most potent advocates.

The administrators and the class of were parting ways, their experiment continuing. The deans vowed to carry on but could not say how aggressively: The students were fanning out to their new jobs, full of suspense about their fates. Because of the unique nature of what plannibg had experienced, they knew, every class alumni magazine update and reunion would be a referendum on how high the women could climb and what values the graduates instilled — the true verdict on the experiment in which they had taken part.

Boyarsky glanced around her new job as a consultant at McKinsey in Dallas, she often noticed that she was outnumbered by men, but she spoke up anyway. She was dating more gusiness she harvard business review project planning at school, she added with shy enthusiasm. Brent McDonald and Hannah Fairfield contributed reporting. Room for Debate asks harvard business review project planning shorefront homeowners should have to open their land to all comers.

Politics Education Texas N. Harvard Business School Case Study: Gender Equity Gretchen Projetc for The New York Times. A version of this article appears prohect print on September 8,on page A 1 of the New Revieq edition with the headline: Get Free Email Alerts on These Topics Harvard Business School Women and Girls Gender Labor and Jobs. Sweep to a Win Over the Heat.

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